HOLY KORANIC ORDER OF PROPHETS ‘From Prophet Adam till Prophet Noah’
After having gone through the Biblical Order 1, 2 & 3 of prophets I found it more interesting to compare the Biblical and Holy Koranic Order of prophets in Abrahamic Religions. The previous article primarily focused on the characters from the Hebrew Bible; a book that is used by both Jews and Christians.
Comparison of Names in Hebrew Bible and Holy Koran
Before proceeding to the Holy Prophets; I would like to relate the noteworthy names of prophets in Hebrew Bible and Holy Koran for better considerations and reference in article. The names written in Bold and Italic are prophets mentioned in Holy Koran while names in () are same prophets mentioned in Hebrew Bible.
Prophet ʾĀdam (Adam); Prophet Sheeth (Seth); Prophet ʾIdrīs (Enoch); Prophet Nūḥ (Noah); Prophet Hūd (Eber). Prophet ṢāliḥʾIbrāhīm (Abraham); Prophet Lūṭ (Lot); Prophet ʾIsmāʿīl (Ishmael); Prophet ʾIsḥāq (Isaac); Prophet Yaʿqūb (Jacob); Prophet Yūsuf (Joseph); Prophet Ayūb (Job); Prophet Dhul-Kifl (Ezekiel); Prophet Shuʿayb (Jethro); Prophet Mūsā (Moses); Prophet Hārūn (Aaron); Prophet Dāūd (David); Prophet Sulaymān (Solomon); Prophet Yūnus (Jonah); Prophet ʾIlyās (Elijah); Prophet Alyasaʿ (Elisha); Prophet Zakarīya (Zechariah); Prophet Yaḥyā (John); Prophet ʿĪsā (Jesus).
Prophet Adam and Eve
Like the Biblical Family Tree, the Islamic Version starts with Prophet Adam and Eve, the first man and first woman. In Islam traditions, Eve is usually called Hawa. Another major difference is that the 25 great people highlighted in Holy Koran are all considered to be prophets, whereas in the Biblical Account, the word prophet is only used for certain individuals such as Prophet Moses or Prophet Elijah.
In Holy Koran, Prophet Adam is seen as being a prophet, whereas in Judaism and Christianity, he is not specifically called as The Prophet. According to one Islamic tradition, Prophet Adam and Hawa had two sets of twins, a boy named Qabeel and Habeel. Those familiar with the Bible will recognize the two boys as being Cain and Abel. After the account of Qabeel and Habeel; ancestor’s line continues through a third brother, known as Shayth or Seth.
According to some Islamic traditions it is believed that Eve went through 120 pregnancies with Adam and each of these consisted of a set of twins: a boy and a girl. (Al-Tabari (1989). The History of Al-Tabari. New York: State University of New York Press. p. 259).
In some other traditions, their first child was a girl, born alone, called ʿAnāq.(Roberto Tottoli, “ʿAnāq”, in Encyclopedia of Islam, THREE, ed. by Kate Fleet and others (first published online 2009), <http://dx.doi.org/10.1163/1573-3912_ei3_COM_22679). When Prophet Adam’s death grew near, he appointed his son Seth as his successor. (Kathir, Al-Imam ibn (2013). Stories of the Prophets. Fortress iPublications.)
Prophet Sheeth or Seth
There are no direct evidence from Holy Koran about Prophet Seth as the third son of Prophet Adam. The Sunni scholar and historian Ibn Kathir in his Tarikh (book of history), Al-Bidāya Wa-n-Nihāya (البداية والنهاية), (http://www.australianislamiclibrary.org/al-bidaya-wan-nahaya.html) records ‘Seth, a prophet like his father Adam, transfers God’s Law to mankind after the death of Adam (Stories of the Prophets, Ibn Kathir, Story of Adam and Seth).
According to some Muslim Scholars Prophet Sheeth was given some scriptures as mentioned in Holy Koran Surah Al-A’la verse 18-19 (This is Certainly ˹Mentioned˺ in the Earlier Scriptures ‘18’ – The Scriptures of Abraham and Moses ‘19’). Prophet Sheeth also plays some role in Sufism, and Ibn Arabi includes a chapter in his ‘Bezels of Wisdom’ on Prophet Sheeth, entitled ‘The Wisdom of Expiration in the Word of Seth’ (The Bezels of Wisdom – 1980, p. 60 by Ibn Al-Arabi).
Prophet Idris or Enoch
The next major prophet mentioned in Holy Koran is Prophet Idris son of Prophet Sheeth and seen as being the equivalent of the Biblical Enoch. In fact, all of the names from Prophet Sheeth to Prophet Idris, as well as beyond, pretty much match up with the names given in the Hebrew Bible.
The spelling, which is based on Arabic, is just a bit different. Holy Koran describes Prophet Idris in verses 19:56-57 and 21:85-86 as ‘Trustworthy, Righteous, Patient and Exalted to a High Station’. According to Islamic tradition, Prophet Idris was “first men to use the pen as well as being one of the first men to observe the movement of the stars and set out scientific weights and measures.”(Lives of the Prophets, Leila Azzam).
According to some Islamic Historians, Prophet Idris’ life attributed “thirty portions of revealed scripture” to him. (A Dictionary of Islam, T.P. Hughes, Ashraf Printing Press, repr. 1989, pg. 192) hence understood by many early commentators to be both Prophet as well as messenger.
According to Hadith, narrated by Malik ibn Anas and found in Sahih Muslim, it is said that on Prophet Muhammad’s (PBUH) Night Journey as Miraj, he (PBUH) encountered Prophet Idris in the Fourth Heaven. (http://www.quranreading.com/blog/about-the-prophet-muhammads-saw-miracle-of-the-isra-night-shab-e-miraj/).
Prophet Idris’s wife was Aadanah. Prophet Idris’s son Methuselah would eventually be the Grandfather of Nuh (Noah). Hence Prophet Idris is identified as the Great-Grandfather of Noah. (http://qureshifamily.info/biography.aspx?q=8).
Prophet Nuh or Noah
One main difference between the Bible’s version and the Holy Quran’s narration is that in the Holy Quran, Prophet Nuh had four sons, instead of just three, and that his fourth son drowned in the Flood, as well as Prophet Nuh’s wife, because they did not believe Prophet Noah’s message.
Prophet Noah’s wife name is not mentioned in the Quran. Some Muslim historians such as Al-Tabari suggested that Prophet Noah’s wife was Umzarah bint Barakil but cannot be confirmed. Muslim scholars generally agree that Prophet Noah had Four Sons; namely Ham, Shem, Yam and Japheth. According to the Holy Quran, one of Prophet Noah’s sons was disbeliever; refused to aboard the Ark, instead preferring to climb a nearby high mountain, but he was drowned. It is agreed among most Islamic Scholars that Yam was the one who drowned; the other three remained believers. (https://www.alislam.org/library/books/HadhratNuh.pdf).